VÚDPaP conducts basic research in the field of psychology and pathopsychology of children and pupils with an emphasis on the psychological, personal, emotional, somatic and social development of children and pupils and the development of psychological and pedagogical research methodology. It also implements applied research in the field of developmental, pedagogical, educational, counseling and social psychology with a focus on the practical use of acquired knowledge in the educational process and counseling practice, as well as research, analysis, forecasting and expertise in accordance with the mission of the Institute.

The institute ensures the application of research findings in practice in regional education, primarily through methodological guidance and coordination of all components of the system of educational counseling and prevention.

Specialists from the Research Institute of Child Psychology and Pathopsychology provide counseling services to children, their parents and teachers on children's problems in the field of cognitive, social, emotional and school development and in the field of professional orientation.

The VÚDPaP includes the Children's Center for Education and Research, which provides comprehensive multidisciplinary care for children with special needs and their families, as well as counseling consultations for schools and school facilities that work with these children. The center provides multidisciplinary care for children and their families, including day-to-day educational and training care, as well as experimental verification of forms of half-day and full-day inclusive education and upbringing, as well as educational activities for university students.

The VÚDPaP Information and Publishing Center has a well-equipped professional library, which provides its services not only to VÚDPaP employees, but also to external users - experts in related professions, university staff and university students.

VÚDPaP publishes the quarterly Psychology and Pathopsychology of the Child, which is the only professional psychological journal published in Slovak, as well as a methodological - professional journal for counseling practice and the general public published twice a year - The Child in the Center of Professional Attention. It also occasionally publishes non-periodical professional monographs and anthologies.

In cooperation with renowned test publishers, the institute is preparing Slovak versions of psychodiagnostic tools for children and young people.

The professional sections of VÚDPaP provide students of the Faculty of Philosophy and Pedagogy of the Comenius University and the Faculty of Philosophy of the Trnava University with professional internships.

The institute also organizes education of pedagogical and professional employees in the field of work with children with behavioral disorders, learning problems, with gifted children, or in the field of career counseling. It ensures the preparation and implementation of educational activities for the development of specific human resources skills in the system of educational counseling and prevention. It organizes professional conferences, seminars, workshops and dissemination activities on current issues of psychology and pathopsychology and issues related to the activities of the institute.

In fulfilling its tasks, VÚDPaP cooperates with relevant institutions in the education sector and in other departments which are competent in caring for children, pupils and their families. Also with directly managed organizations of the Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sports of the Slovak Republic, with materially related institutions in the Slovak Republic and abroad, as well as with the academic sphere.